Gregory, a professional penetration tester working at Sys Security Ltd., is tasked with performing a security test of web applications used in the company. For this purpose, Gregory uses a tool to test for any security loopholes by hijacking a session between a client and server. This tool has a feature of intercepting proxy that can be used to inspect and modify the traffic between the browser and target application. This tool can also perform customized attacks and can be used to test the randomness of session tokens. Which of the following tools is used by Gregory in the above scenario?
What is the known plaintext attack used against DES which gives the result that encrypting plaintext with one DES key followed by encrypting it with a second DES key is no more secure than using a single key?
Yancey is a network security administrator for a large electric company. This company provides power for over 100, 000 people in Las Vegas. Yancey has worked for his company for over 15 years and has become very successful. One day, Yancey comes in to work and finds out that the company will be downsizing and he will be out of a job in two weeks. Yancey is very angry and decides to place logic bombs, viruses, Trojans, and backdoors all over the network to take down the company once he has left. Yancey does not care if his actions land him in jail for 30 or more years, he just wants the company to pay for what they are doing to him.
What would Yancey be considered?
Attacker Simon targeted the communication network of an organization and disabled the security controls of NetNTLMvl by modifying the values of LMCompatibilityLevel, NTLMMinClientSec, and RestrictSendingNTLMTraffic. He then extracted all the non-network logon tokens from all the active processes to masquerade as a legitimate user to launch further attacks. What is the type of attack performed by Simon?
Bob, a network administrator at BigUniversity, realized that some students are connecting their notebooks in the wired network to have Internet access. In the university campus, there are many Ethernet ports available for professors and authorized visitors but not for students.
He identified this when the IDS alerted for malware activities in the network. What should Bob do to avoid this problem?
This form of encryption algorithm is asymmetric key block cipher that is characterized by a 128-bit block size, and its key size can be up to 256 bits. Which among the following is this encryption algorithm?
Twofish is an encryption algorithm designed by Bruce Schneier. It’s a symmetric key block cipher with a block size of 128 bits, with keys up to 256 bits. it’s associated with AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) and an earlier block cipher called Blowfish. Twofish was actually a finalist to become the industry standard for encryption, but was ultimately beaten out by the present AES.Twofish has some distinctive features that set it aside from most other cryptographic protocols. For one, it uses pre-computed, key-dependent S-boxes. An S-box (substitution-box) may be a basic component of any symmetric key algorithm which performs substitution. within the context of Twofish’s block cipher, the S-box works to obscure the connection of the key to the ciphertext. Twofish uses a pre-computed, key-dependent S-box which suggests that the S-box is already provided, but depends on the cipher key to decrypt the knowledge .
How Secure is Twofish?Twofish is seen as a really secure option as far as encryption protocols go. one among the explanations that it wasn’t selected because the advanced encryption standard is thanks to its slower speed. Any encryption standard that uses a 128-bit or higher key, is theoretically safe from brute force attacks. Twofish is during this category.Because Twofish uses “pre-computed key-dependent S-boxes”, it are often susceptible to side channel attacks. this is often thanks to the tables being pre-computed. However, making these tables key-dependent helps mitigate that risk. There are a couple of attacks on Twofish, but consistent with its creator, Bruce Schneier, it didn’t constitute a real cryptanalysis. These attacks didn’t constitue a practical break within the cipher.
Products That Use TwofishGnuPG: GnuPG may be a complete and free implementation of the OpenPGP standard as defined by RFC4880 (also referred to as PGP). GnuPG allows you to encrypt and sign your data and communications; it features a flexible key management system, along side access modules for all types of public key directories.KeePass: KeePass may be a password management tool that generates passwords with top-notch security. It’s a free, open source, lightweight and easy-to-use password manager with many extensions and plugins.Password Safe: Password Safe uses one master password to stay all of your passwords protected, almost like the functionality of most of the password managers on this list. It allows you to store all of your passwords during a single password database, or multiple databases for various purposes. Creating a database is straightforward , just create the database, set your master password.PGP (Pretty Good Privacy): PGP is employed mostly for email encryption, it encrypts the content of the e-mail . However, Pretty Good Privacy doesn’t encrypt the topic and sender of the e-mail , so make certain to never put sensitive information in these fields when using PGP.TrueCrypt: TrueCrypt may be a software program that encrypts and protects files on your devices. With TrueCrypt the encryption is transparent to the user and is completed locally at the user’s computer. this suggests you’ll store a TrueCrypt file on a server and TrueCrypt will encrypt that file before it’s sent over the network.
You are attempting to crack LM Manager hashed from Windows 2000 SAM file. You will be using LM Brute force hacking tool for decryption. What encryption algorithm will you be decrypting?
An attacker, using a rogue wireless AP, performed an MITM attack and injected an HTML code to embed a malicious applet in all HTTP connections.
When users accessed any page, the applet ran and exploited many machines. Which one of the following tools the hacker probably used to inject HTML code?
The security team of Debry Inc. decided to upgrade Wi-Fi security to thwart attacks such as dictionary attacks and key recovery attacks. For this purpose, the security team started implementing cutting-edge technology that uses a modern key establishment protocol called the simultaneous authentication of equals (SAE), also known as dragonfly key exchange, which replaces the PSK concept. What is the Wi-Fi encryption technology implemented by Debry Inc.?
What two conditions must a digital signature meet?
A company’s Web development team has become aware of a certain type of security vulnerability in their Web software. To mitigate the possibility of this vulnerability being exploited, the team wants to modify the software requirements to disallow users from entering HTML as input into their Web application.
What kind of Web application vulnerability likely exists in their software?
Insecure direct object reference is a type of vulnerability where the application does not verify if the user is authorized to access the internal object via its name or key. Suppose a malicious user Rob tries to get access to the account of a benign user Ned.
Which of the following requests best illustrates an attempt to exploit an insecure direct object reference vulnerability?
Andrew is an Ethical Hacker who was assigned the task of discovering all the active devices hidden by a restrictive firewall in the IPv4 range in a given target network.
Which of the following host discovery techniques must he use to perform the given task?
One of the most common Nmap usage scenarios is scanning an Ethernet LAN. Most LANs, especially those that use the private address range granted by RFC 1918, do not always use the overwhelming majority of IP addresses. When Nmap attempts to send a raw IP packet, such as an ICMP echo request, the OS must determine a destination hardware (ARP) address, such as the target IP, so that the Ethernet frame can be properly addressed. .. This is required to issue a series of ARP requests. This is best illustrated by an example where a ping scan is attempted against an Area Ethernet host. The –send-ip option tells Nmap to send IP-level packets (rather than raw Ethernet), even on area networks. The Wireshark output of the three ARP requests and their timing have been pasted into the session.
Raw IP ping scan example for offline targetsThis example took quite a couple of seconds to finish because the (Linux) OS sent three ARP requests at 1 second intervals before abandoning the host. Waiting for a few seconds is excessive, as long as the ARP response usually arrives within a few milliseconds. Reducing this timeout period is not a priority for OS vendors, as the overwhelming majority of packets are sent to the host that actually exists. Nmap, on the other hand, needs to send packets to 16 million IP s given a target like 10.0.0.0/8. Many targets are pinged in parallel, but waiting 2 seconds each is very delayed.
There is another problem with raw IP ping scans on the LAN. If the destination host turns out to be unresponsive, as in the previous example, the source host usually adds an incomplete entry for that destination IP to the kernel ARP table. ARP tablespaces are finite and some operating systems become unresponsive when full. If Nmap is used in rawIP mode (–send-ip), Nmap may have to wait a few minutes for the ARP cache entry to expire before continuing host discovery.
ARP scans solve both problems by giving Nmap the highest priority. Nmap issues raw ARP requests and handles retransmissions and timeout periods in its sole discretion. The system ARP cache is bypassed. The example shows the difference. This ARP scan takes just over a tenth of the time it takes for an equivalent IP.
Example b ARP ping scan of offline target
In example b, neither the -PR option nor the -send-eth option has any effect. This is often because ARP has a default scan type on the Area Ethernet network when scanning Ethernet hosts that Nmap discovers. This includes traditional wired Ethernet as 802.11 wireless networks. As mentioned above, ARP scanning is not only more efficient, but also more accurate. Hosts frequently block IP-based ping packets, but usually cannot block ARP requests or responses and communicate over the network.Nmap uses ARP instead of all targets on equivalent targets, even if different ping types (such as -PE and -PS) are specified. LAN.. If you do not need to attempt an ARP scan at all, specify –send-ip as shown in Example a “Raw IP Ping Scan for Offline Targets”.
If you give Nmap control to send raw Ethernet frames, Nmap can also adjust the source MAC address. If you have the only PowerBook in your security conference room and a large ARP scan is initiated from an Apple-registered MAC address, your head may turn to you. Use the –spoof-mac option to spoof the MAC address as described in the MAC Address Spoofing section.
Stephen, an attacker, targeted the industrial control systems of an organization. He generated a fraudulent email with a malicious attachment and sent it to employees of the target organization. An employee who manages the sales software of the operational plant opened the fraudulent email and clicked on the malicious attachment. This resulted in the malicious attachment being downloaded and malware being injected into the sales software maintained in the victim's system. Further, the malware propagated itself to other networked systems, finally damaging the industrial automation components. What is the attack technique used by Stephen to damage the industrial systems?
Richard, an attacker, targets an MNC. in this process, he uses a footprinting technique to gather as much information as possible. Using this technique, he gathers domain information such as the target domain name, contact details of its owner, expiry date, and creation date. With this information, he creates a map of the organization's network and misleads domain owners with social engineering to obtain internal details of its network. What type of footprinting technique is employed by Richard?
WHOIS (pronounced because the phrase who is) may be a query and response protocol and whois footprinting may be a method for glance information about ownership of a website name as following:• name details• Contact details contain phone no. and email address of the owner• Registration date for the name• Expire date for the name• name servers
In the context of Windows Security, what is a 'null' user?
The network administrator at Spears Technology, Inc has configured the default gateway Cisco router's access-list as below:
You are hired to conduct security testing on their network.
You successfully brute-force the SNMP community string using a SNMP crack tool.
The access-list configured at the router prevents you from establishing a successful connection.
You want to retrieve the Cisco configuration from the router. How would you proceed?
You are logged in as a local admin on a Windows 7 system and you need to launch the Computer Management Console from command line.
Which command would you use?
To start the Computer Management Console from command line just type compmgmt.msc /computer:computername in your run box or at the command line and it should automatically open the Computer Management console.
To determine if a software program properly handles a wide range of invalid input, a form of automated testing can be used to randomly generate invalid input in an attempt to crash the program.
What term is commonly used when referring to this type of testing?
infecting a system with malware and using phishing to gain credentials to a system or web application are examples of which phase of the ethical hacking methodology?
This phase having the hacker uses different techniques and tools to realize maximum data from the system. they’re –• Password cracking – Methods like Bruteforce, dictionary attack, rule-based attack, rainbow table are used. Bruteforce is trying all combinations of the password. Dictionary attack is trying an inventory of meaningful words until the password matches. Rainbow table takes the hash value of the password and compares with pre-computed hash values until a match is discovered.• Password attacks – Passive attacks like wire sniffing, replay attack. Active online attack like Trojans, keyloggers, hash injection, phishing. Offline attacks like pre-computed hash, distributed network and rainbow. Non electronic attack like shoulder surfing, social engineering and dumpster diving.
Bob, your senior colleague, has sent you a mail regarding a deal with one of the clients. You are requested to accept the offer and you oblige. After 2 days. Bob denies that he had ever sent a mail. What do you want to ""know"" to prove yourself that it was Bob who had send a mail?
While testing a web application in development, you notice that the web server does not properly ignore the “dot dot slash” (../) character string and instead returns the file listing of a folder structure of the server.
What kind of attack is possible in this scenario?
Appropriately controlling admittance to web content is significant for running a safe web worker. Index crossing or Path Traversal is a HTTP assault which permits aggressors to get to limited catalogs and execute orders outside of the web worker’s root registry.
Web workers give two primary degrees of security instruments
An Access Control List is utilized in the approval cycle. It is a rundown which the web worker’s manager uses to show which clients or gatherings can get to, change or execute specific records on the worker, just as other access rights.
The root registry is a particular index on the worker record framework in which the clients are kept. Clients can’t get to anything over this root.
For instance: the default root registry of IIS on Windows is C:\Inetpub\wwwroot and with this arrangement, a client doesn’t approach C:\Windows yet approaches C:\Inetpub\wwwroot\news and some other indexes and documents under the root catalog (given that the client is confirmed by means of the ACLs).
The root index keeps clients from getting to any documents on the worker, for example, C:\WINDOWS/system32/win.ini on Windows stages and the/and so on/passwd record on Linux/UNIX stages.
This weakness can exist either in the web worker programming itself or in the web application code.
To play out a registry crossing assault, all an assailant requires is an internet browser and some information on where to aimlessly discover any default documents and registries on the framework.
What an assailant can do if your site is defenselessWith a framework defenseless against index crossing, an aggressor can utilize this weakness to venture out of the root catalog and access different pieces of the record framework. This may enable the assailant to see confined documents, which could give the aggressor more data needed to additional trade off the framework.
Contingent upon how the site access is set up, the aggressor will execute orders by mimicking himself as the client which is related with “the site”. Along these lines everything relies upon what the site client has been offered admittance to in the framework.
Illustration of a Directory Traversal assault by means of web application codeIn web applications with dynamic pages, input is generally gotten from programs through GET or POST solicitation techniques. Here is an illustration of a HTTP GET demand URL
GET http://test.webarticles. com/show.asp?view=oldarchive.html HTTP/1.1
With this URL, the browser requests the dynamic page show.asp from the server and with it also sends the parameter view with the value of oldarchive.html. When this request is executed on the web server, show.asp retrieves the file oldarchive.html from the server’s file system, renders it and then sends it back to the browser which displays it to the user. The attacker would assume that show.asp can retrieve files from the file system and sends the following custom URL.
This will cause the dynamic page to retrieve the file system.ini from the file system and display it to the user. The expression ../ instructs the system to go one directory up which is commonly used as an operating system directive. The attacker has to guess how many directories he has to go up to find the Windows folder on the system, but this is easily done by trial and error.
Example of a Directory Traversal attack via web serverApart from vulnerabilities in the code, even the web server itself can be open to directory traversal attacks. The problem can either be incorporated into the web server software or inside some sample script files left available on the server.
The vulnerability has been fixed in the latest versions of web server software, but there are web servers online which are still using older versions of IIS and Apache which might be open to directory traversal attacks. Even though you might be using a web server software version that has fixed this vulnerability, you might still have some sensitive default script directories exposed which are well known to hackers.
For example, a URL request which makes use of the scripts directory of IIS to traverse directories and execute a command can be
The request would return to the user a list of all files in the C:\ directory by executing the cmd.exe command shell file and run the command dir c:\ in the shell. The %5c expression that is in the URL request is a web server escape code which is used to represent normal characters. In this case %5c represents the character \.
Newer versions of modern web server software check for these escape codes and do not let them through. Some older versions however, do not filter out these codes in the root directory enforcer and will let the attackers execute such commands.
In order to tailor your tests during a web-application scan, you decide to determine which web-server version is hosting the application. On using the sV flag with Nmap. you obtain the following response:
80/tcp open http-proxy Apache Server 7.1.6
what Information-gathering technique does this best describe?
Banner grabbing is a technique wont to gain info about a computer system on a network and the services running on its open ports. administrators will use this to take inventory of the systems and services on their network. However, an to find will use banner grabbing so as to search out network hosts that are running versions of applications and operating systems with known exploits.
Some samples of service ports used for banner grabbing are those used by Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP); ports 80, 21, and 25 severally. Tools normally used to perform banner grabbing are Telnet, nmap and Netcat.
For example, one may establish a connection to a target internet server using Netcat, then send an HTTP request. The response can usually contain info about the service running on the host:
Graphical user interface, text, application Description automatically generated
This information may be used by an administrator to catalog this system, or by an intruder to narrow down a list of applicable exploits.To prevent this, network administrators should restrict access to services on their networks and shut down unused or unnecessary services running on network hosts. Shodan is a search engine for banners grabbed from portscanning the Internet.
What type of analysis is performed when an attacker has partial knowledge of inner-workings of the application?
is a set of extensions to DNS that provide the origin authentication of DNS data to DNS clients (resolvers) so as to reduce the threat of DNS poisoning, spoofing, and similar types of attacks.
The tools which receive event logs from servers, network equipment, and applications, and perform analysis and correlation on those logs, and can generate alarms for security relevant issues, are known as what?
Johnson, an attacker, performed online research for the contact details of reputed cybersecurity firms. He found the contact number of sibertech.org and dialed the number, claiming himself to represent a technical support team from a vendor. He warned that a specific server is about to be compromised and requested sibertech.org to follow the provided instructions. Consequently, he prompted the victim to execute unusual commands and install malicious files, which were then used to collect and pass critical Information to Johnson's machine. What is the social engineering technique Steve employed in the above scenario?
This Social Engineering scam involves an exchange of information that can benefit both the victim and the trickster. Scammers would make the prey believe that a fair exchange will be present between both sides, but in reality, only the fraudster stands to benefit, leaving the victim hanging on to nothing. An example of a Quid Pro Quo is a scammer pretending to be an IT support technician. The con artist asks for the login credentials of the company’s computer saying that the company is going to receive technical support in return. Once the victim has provided the credentials, the scammer now has control over the company’s computer and may possibly load malware or steal personal information that can be a motive to commit identity theft.
"A quid pro quo attack (aka something for something” attack) is a variant of baiting. Instead of baiting a target with the promise of a good, a quid pro quo attack promises a service or a benefit based on the execution of a specific action." https://resources.infosecinstitute.com/topic/common-social-engineering-attacks/#:~:text=A%20quid%20pro%20quo%20attack,execution%20of%20a%20specific%20action .
Kevin, an encryption specialist, implemented a technique that enhances the security of keys used for encryption and authentication. Using this technique, Kevin input an initial key to an algorithm that generated an enhanced key that is resistant to brute-force attacks. What is the technique employed by Kevin to improve the security of encryption keys?
Which regulation defines security and privacy controls for Federal information systems and organizations?
What port number is used by LDAP protocol?
Abel, a cloud architect, uses container technology to deploy applications/software including all its dependencies, such as libraries and configuration files, binaries, and other resources that run independently from other processes in the cloud environment. For the containerization of applications, he follows the five-tier container technology architecture. Currently. Abel is verifying and validating image contents, signing images, and sending them to the registries. Which of the following tiers of the container technology architecture Is Abel currently working in?
The official management decision given by a senior agency official to authorize operation of an information system and to explicitly accept the risk to agency operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), agency assets, or individuals, based on the implementation of an agreed-upon set of security controls.
formal declaration by a designated accrediting authority (DAA) or principal accrediting authority (PAA) that an information system is approved to operate at an acceptable level of risk, based on the implementation of an approved set of technical, managerial, and procedural safeguards. See authorization to operate (ATO). Rationale: The Risk Management Framework uses a new term to refer to this concept, and it is called authorization.
Identifies the information resources covered by an accreditation decision, as distinguished from separately accredited information resources that are interconnected or with which information is exchanged via messaging. Synonymous with Security Perimeter.
For the purposes of identifying the Protection Level for confidentiality of a system to be accredited, the system has a conceptual boundary that extends to all intended users of the system, both directly and indirectly connected, who receive output from the system. See authorization boundary. Rationale: The Risk Management Framework uses a new term to refer to the concept of accreditation, and it is called authorization. Extrapolating, the accreditation boundary would then be referred to as the authorization boundary.
This TCP flag instructs the sending system to transmit all buffered data immediately.
What is the minimum number of network connections in a multihomed firewall?
DNS cache snooping is a process of determining if the specified resource address is present in the DNS cache records. It may be useful during the examination of the network to determine what software update resources are used, thus discovering what software is installed.
What command is used to determine if the entry is present in DNS cache?
Which definition among those given below best describes a covert channel?
A pen tester is configuring a Windows laptop for a test. In setting up Wireshark, what river and library
are required to allow the NIC to work in promiscuous mode?
To create a botnet. the attacker can use several techniques to scan vulnerable machines. The attacker first collects Information about a large number of vulnerable machines to create a list. Subsequently, they infect the machines. The list Is divided by assigning half of the list to the newly compromised machines. The scanning process runs simultaneously. This technique ensures the spreading and installation of malicious code in little time.
Which technique is discussed here?
One of the biggest problems a worm faces in achieving a very fast rate of infection is “getting off the ground.” although a worm spreads exponentially throughout the early stages of infection, the time needed to infect say the first 10,000 hosts dominates the infection time.
There is a straightforward way for an active worm a simple this obstacle, that we term hit-list scanning. Before the worm is free, the worm author collects a listing of say ten,000 to 50,000 potentially vulnerable machines, ideally ones with sensible network connections. The worm, when released onto an initial machine on this hit-list, begins scanning down the list. once it infects a machine, it divides the hit-list in half, communicating half to the recipient worm, keeping the other half.
This fast division ensures that even if only 10-20% of the machines on the hit-list are actually vulnerable, an active worm can quickly bear the hit-list and establish itself on all vulnerable machines in only some seconds. though the hit-list could begin at 200 kilobytes, it quickly shrinks to nothing during the partitioning. This provides a great benefit in constructing a quick worm by speeding the initial infection.
The hit-list needn’t be perfect: a simple list of machines running a selected server sort could serve, though larger accuracy can improve the unfold. The hit-list itself is generated victimization one or many of the following techniques, ready well before, typically with very little concern of detection.
What is the least important information when you analyze a public IP address in a security alert?
Jude, a pen tester working in Keiltech Ltd., performs sophisticated security testing on his company's network infrastructure to identify security loopholes. In this process, he started to circumvent the network protection tools and firewalls used in the company. He employed a technique that can create forged TCP sessions by carrying out multiple SYN, ACK, and RST or FIN packets. Further, this process allowed Jude to execute DDoS attacks that can exhaust the network resources. What is the attack technique used by Jude for finding loopholes in the above scenario?
What is not a PCI compliance recommendation?
Study the following log extract and identify the attack.
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Jim’s company regularly performs backups of their critical servers. But the company cannot afford to send backup tapes to an off-site vendor for long-term storage and archiving. Instead, Jim’s company keeps the backup tapes in a safe in the office. Jim’s company is audited each year, and the results from this year’s audit show a risk because backup tapes are not stored off-site. The Manager of Information Technology has a plan to take the backup tapes home with him and wants to know what two things he can do to secure the backup tapes while in transit?
You are trying to break into a highly classified top-secret mainframe computer with highest security system in place at Merclyn Barley Bank located in Los Angeles.
You know that conventional hacking doesn't work in this case, because organizations such as banks are generally tight and secure when it comes to protecting their systems.
In other words, you are trying to penetrate an otherwise impenetrable system.
How would you proceed?
Which of the following tools can be used to perform a zone transfer?
Cross-site request forgery involves:
PGP, SSL, and IKE are all examples of which type of cryptography?
What is the proper response for a NULL scan if the port is open?
Clark is a professional hacker. He created and configured multiple domains pointing to the same host to switch quickly between the domains and avoid detection.
Identify the behavior of the adversary In the above scenario.
A proxy server acts as a gateway between you and therefore the internet. It’s an intermediary server separating end users from the websites they browse. Proxy servers provide varying levels of functionality, security, and privacy counting on your use case, needs, or company policy.If you’re employing a proxy server, internet traffic flows through the proxy server on its thanks to the address you requested. A proxy server is essentially a computer on the web with its own IP address that your computer knows. once you send an internet request, your request goes to the proxy server first. The proxy server then makes your web request on your behalf, collects the response from the online server, and forwards you the online page data so you’ll see the page in your browser.
Ricardo has discovered the username for an application in his targets environment. As he has a limited amount of time, he decides to attempt to use a list of common passwords he found on the Internet. He compiles them into a list and then feeds that list as an argument into his password-cracking application, what type of attack is Ricardo performing?
A dictionary Attack as an attack vector utilized by the attacker to break in a very system, that is password protected, by golf shot technically each word in a very dictionary as a variety of password for that system. This attack vector could be a variety of Brute Force Attack.
The lexicon will contain words from an English dictionary and conjointly some leaked list of commonly used passwords and once combined with common character substitution with numbers, will generally be terribly effective and quick.
How is it done?
Basically, it’s attempting each single word that’s already ready. it’s done victimization machine-controlled tools that strive all the possible words within the dictionary.
Some password Cracking Software:
• John the ripper
Upon establishing his new startup, Tom hired a cloud service provider (CSP) but was dissatisfied with their service and wanted to move to another CSP.
What part of the contract might prevent him from doing so?
An attacker changes the profile information of a particular user (victim) on the target website. The attacker uses this string to update the victim’s profile to a text file and then submit the data to the attacker’s database.
< iframe src=““http://www.vulnweb.com/updateif.php”” style=““display:none”” > < /iframe >
What is this type of attack (that can use either HTTP GET or HTTP POST) called?
A company’s security policy states that all Web browsers must automatically delete their HTTP browser cookies upon terminating. What sort of security breach is this policy attempting to mitigate?
An organization is performing a vulnerability assessment tor mitigating threats. James, a pen tester, scanned the organization by building an inventory of the protocols found on the organization's machines to detect which ports are attached to services such as an email server, a web server or a database server. After identifying the services, he selected the vulnerabilities on each machine and started executing only the relevant tests. What is the type of vulnerability assessment solution that James employed in the above scenario?
In an inference-based assessment, scanning starts by building an inventory of the protocols found on the machine. After finding a protocol, the scanning process starts to detect which ports are attached to services, such as an email server, web server, or database server. After finding services, it selects vulnerabilities on each machine and starts to execute only those relevant tests.
Mary found a high vulnerability during a vulnerability scan and notified her server team. After analysis, they sent her proof that a fix to that issue had already been applied. The vulnerability that Marry found is called what?
A friend of yours tells you that he downloaded and executed a file that was sent to him by a coworker. Since the file did nothing when executed, he asks you for help because he suspects that he may have installed a trojan on his computer.
what tests would you perform to determine whether his computer Is Infected?
Which type of sniffing technique is generally referred as MiTM attack?
In the field of cryptanalysis, what is meant by a “rubber-hose” attack?
How can you determine if an LM hash you extracted contains a password that is less than 8 characters long?
An attacker utilizes a Wi-Fi Pineapple to run an access point with a legitimate-looking SSID for a nearby business in order to capture the wireless password. What kind of attack is this?
What do Trinoo, TFN2k, WinTrinoo, T-Sight, and Stracheldraht have in common?
Steven connected his iPhone to a public computer that had been infected by Clark, an attacker. After establishing the connection with the public computer, Steven enabled iTunes WI-FI sync on the computer so that the device could continue communication with that computer even after being physically disconnected. Now, Clark gains access to Steven’s iPhone through the infected computer and is able to monitor and read all of Steven’s activity on the iPhone, even after the device is out of the communication zone.
Which of the following attacks is performed by Clark in above scenario?
An iPhone client’s most noticeably terrible bad dream is to have somebody oversee his/her gadget, including the capacity to record and control all action without waiting be in a similar room. In this blog entry, we present another weakness called “Trustjacking”, which permits an aggressor to do precisely that.
This weakness misuses an iOS highlight called iTunes Wi-Fi sync, which permits a client to deal with their iOS gadget without genuinely interfacing it to their PC. A solitary tap by the iOS gadget proprietor when the two are associated with a similar organization permits an assailant to oversee the gadget. Furthermore, we will stroll through past related weaknesses and show the progressions that iPhone has made to alleviate them, and why these are adequately not to forestall comparative assaults.
After interfacing an iOS gadget to another PC, the clients are being found out if they trust the associated PC or not. Deciding to believe the PC permits it to speak with the iOS gadget by means of the standard iTunes APIs.
This permits the PC to get to the photographs on the gadget, perform reinforcement, introduce applications and considerably more, without requiring another affirmation from the client and with no recognizable sign. Besides, this permits enacting the “iTunes Wi-Fi sync” highlight, which makes it conceivable to proceed with this sort of correspondence with the gadget even after it has been detached from the PC, as long as the PC and the iOS gadget are associated with a similar organization. It is intriguing to take note of that empowering “iTunes Wi-Fi sync” doesn’t need the casualty’s endorsement and can be directed simply from the PC side.
Getting a live stream of the gadget’s screen should be possible effectively by consistently requesting screen captures and showing or recording them distantly.
It is imperative to take note of that other than the underlying single purpose of disappointment, approving the vindictive PC, there is no other component that forestalls this proceeded with access. Likewise, there isn’t anything that informs the clients that by approving the PC they permit admittance to their gadget even in the wake of detaching the USB link.
Due to a slowdown of normal network operations, the IT department decided to monitor internet traffic for all of the employees. From a legal standpoint, what would be troublesome to take this kind of measure?
Windows LAN Manager (LM) hashes are known to be weak.
Which of the following are known weaknesses of LM? (Choose three.)
A post-breach forensic investigation revealed that a known vulnerability in Apache Struts was to blame for the Equifax data breach that affected 143 million customers. A fix was available from the software vendor for several months prior 10 the Intrusion. This Is likely a failure in which of the following security processes?
Patch management is that the method that helps acquire, test and install multiple patches (code changes) on existing applications and software tools on a pc, enabling systems to remain updated on existing patches and determining that patches are the suitable ones. Managing patches so becomes simple and simple.
Patch Management is usually done by software system firms as a part of their internal efforts to mend problems with the various versions of software system programs and also to assist analyze existing software system programs and discover any potential lack of security features or different upgrades.
Software patches help fix those problems that exist and are detected solely once the software’s initial unharness. Patches mostly concern security while there are some patches that concern the particular practicality of programs as well.
There have been concerns in your network that the wireless network component is not sufficiently secure. You perform a vulnerability scan of the wireless network and find that it is using an old encryption protocol that was designed to mimic wired encryption, what encryption protocol is being used?
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) may be a security protocol, laid out in the IEEE wireless local area network (Wi-Fi) standard, 802.11b, that’s designed to supply a wireless local area network (WLAN) with A level of security and privacy like what’s usually expected of a wired LAN. A wired local area network (LAN) is usually protected by physical security mechanisms (controlled access to a building, for example) that are effective for a controlled physical environment, but could also be ineffective for WLANs because radio waves aren’t necessarily bound by the walls containing the network. WEP seeks to determine similar protection thereto offered by the wired network’s physical security measures by encrypting data transmitted over the WLAN. encoding protects the vulnerable wireless link between clients and access points; once this measure has been taken, other typical LAN security mechanisms like password protection, end-to-end encryption, virtual private networks (VPNs), and authentication are often put in situ to make sure privacy.A research group from the University of California at Berkeley recently published a report citing “major security flaws” in WEP that left WLANs using the protocol susceptible to attacks (called wireless equivalent privacy attacks). within the course of the group’s examination of the technology, they were ready to intercept and modify transmissions and gain access to restricted networks. The Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA) claims that WEP – which is included in many networking products – was never intended to be the only security mechanism for a WLAN, and that, in conjunction with traditional security practices, it’s very effective.
What is the first step for a hacker conducting a DNS cache poisoning (DNS spoofing) attack against an organization?
What would be the purpose of running "wget 192.168.0.15 -q -S" against a web server?
-q, --quiet quiet (no output)
-S, --server-response print server response
Why should the security analyst disable/remove unnecessary ISAPI filters?
How is the public key distributed in an orderly, controlled fashion so that the users can be sure of the sender’s identity?
The Heartbleed bug was discovered in 2014 and is widely referred to under MITRE’s Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) as CVE-2014-0160. This bug affects the OpenSSL implementation of the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocols defined in RFC6520.
What type of key does this bug leave exposed to the Internet making exploitation of any compromised system very easy?
Gavin owns a white-hat firm and is performing a website security audit for one of his clients. He begins by running a scan which looks for common misconfigurations and outdated software versions. Which of the following tools is he most likely using?
Which of the following is the structure designed to verify and authenticate the identity of individuals within the enterprise taking part in a data exchange?
Which type of security feature stops vehicles from crashing through the doors of a building?
Fingerprinting an Operating System helps a cracker because:
What is one of the advantages of using both symmetric and asymmetric cryptography in SSL/TLS?