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CTAL-TM_Syll2012 Sample Questions Answers

Questions 4

Test Management

You are working on a project to develop an authentication system for an e-commerce website. This system provides two features: Registration and authentication. Two different development teams develop these two features.

There is a high likelihood that the delivery of the authentication feature to the test team will be three weeks later. To complete the registration the user must provide the following registration inputs: Name, surname, birthdate, fiscal code and he/she can select a username and a password.

A registered user can be a special user or a normal user. To be identified as a special user, he/she must also provide, during the registration process, a voucher possibly received from the IT department.

Access is granted only if a user is registered and the password is correct: In all other cases access is denied. If the registered user is a special user and the password is wrong, a special warning is shown on the system console.

You are currently performing a quality risk analysis using FMEA.

Based only on the given information, which of the following is NOT a product risk that could be identified during the quality risk analysis?

Number of correct responses: 1

K43 credits

Options:

A.

The late delivery of the authentication feature to the test team causes delays in the start of test execution and this could result in a shorter test period

B.

The authentication system denies access for a special user with a wrong password, but doesn’t display a special warning on the system console

C.

The authentication system grants access to a normal user with a wrong password

D.

The authentication system grants access to a special user with a wrong password

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Questions 5

Test Management

You are estimating the effort for the integration testing activities of a new project. Consider the following factors, which can affect that estimation:

I. Availability of re-usable test systems and documentation from previous, similar projects

II. Unexpected timing of components arrival

III. Stability of the integration test team (no turnover)

IV. Many and geographically distributed sub-teams

Which of the following statements is true?

Number of correct responses: 1

K21 credit

Options:

A.

I. and II. can negatively affect the estimation

III. and IV. usually favor the accuracy of the estimation effort

B.

II. and III. can negatively affect the estimation

C.

and IV. usually favor the accuracy of the estimation effort

D.

II. and IV. can negatively affect the estimation

E.

and III. usually favor the accuracy of the estimation effort

F.

III. and IV. can negatively affect the estimation

G.

and II. usually favor the accuracy of the estimation effort

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Questions 6

Test Management

The following chart plots the cumulative number of defects opened against the cumulative number of defects closed during system testing of a software product.

Which of the following statements is true?

Number of correct responses: 1

K21 credit

Options:

A.

The chart indicates that you have plenty of problems left to find

B.

The chart can be used to reveal test progress problems

C.

The chart seems to indicate that the defect management process is not working well

D.

The chart seems to indicate that the defect management process is working well

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Questions 7

Test Management

You are the Test Manager of a new project that will have three formal levels of testing: unit, integration and system testing. The testing strategy you decide to adopt a blend of risk-based testing and reactive testing strategies.

Which of the following answers describes the most consistent example of implementation of this test strategy during the execution of the system tests?

Number of correct responses: 1

K21 credit

Options:

A.

Your test team executes exploratory tests following a session-based test management approach throughout the system test phase

B.

Your test team executes system tests under the guidance of a sample of users throughout the system test phase

C.

Your test team executes scripted tests designed and implemented before the execution of the system test phase, to cover the identified product risks. It also performs exploratory testing sessions throughout the system test phase

D.

Your test team autonomously performs some exploratory testing sessions and, at the very end of the system testing phase, it also executes more system tests under the guidance of a sample of users

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Questions 8

Reviews

Which of the following factors could negatively influence a review?

Number of correct responses: 1

K21 credit

Options:

A.

Include people with the adequate level of knowledge, both technical and procedural

B.

Include people who are detail-oriented and scrupulous at finding issues

C.

Include as many people as possible in order to have more viewpoints about possible problems on the item under review

D.

Include people able to contribute to a clear, thoughtful, constructive and objective discussion

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Questions 9

Test Management

Which one of the following metrics to be produced needs traceability between the test cases and each item in a proper test basis?

Number of correct responses: 1

K21 credit

Options:

A.

Requirements coverage

B.

Trends in the lag time from defect reporting to resolution

C.

Mean time between failures for the system

D.

Cumulative number of reported defects versus cumulative number of resolved defects

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Questions 10

Reviews

You are the Test Manager of a project that adopts a V-model with four formal levels of testing: unit, integration, system and acceptance testing.

On this project reviews have been conducted for each development phase prior to testing, which is to say that reviews of requirements, functional specification, high-level design, low-level design and code have been performed prior to testing.

Assume that no requirements defects have been reported after the release of the product.

Which TWO of the following metrics do you need in order to evaluate the requirements reviews in terms of phase containment effectiveness?

Number of correct responses: 2

K32 credits

Options:

A.

Number of defects found during the requirements review

B.

Total number of defects attributable to requirements found during unit, integration, system and acceptance testing

C.

Total number of defects found during functional specification review, high-level design review, low-level design review, code review, unit testing, integration testing, system testing and acceptance testing

D.

Time to conduct the requirements review

E.

Total number of defects attributable to requirements, found during functional specification review, high-level design review, low-level design review, code review, unit testing, integration testing, system testing and acceptance testing

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Questions 11

Reviews

You are a Test Manager working for a software organization where reviews have never been applied. After a meeting with your managers examining a business case for reviews, (including their costs, benefits, and potential issues), the management finally decides to adopt formal reviews for future projects.

You have been given a budget that you have spent to provide training in the review process and to introduce the review process on a pilot project.

On that pilot project the introduction of reviews has been very positive in terms of positive involvement from all the participants. All the reviews applied to different documents have been very effective for their purposes (especially at revealing defects).

Which of the following answers describes an important success factor for the introduction of formal reviews which is missing in this scenario?

Number of correct responses: 1

K43 credits

Options:

A.

Management support

B.

Participant support

C.

Definition and use of metrics to measure the ROI (Return On Investment)

D.

Training in the review process

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Questions 12

The main objectives the senior management team wants to achieve are:

- to reduce the costs associated with dynamic testing

- to use reviews to ensure that the project is on course for success and following the plan

- to use reviews as a well-documented and effective bug-removal activity following a formal process with well-defined roles

- to determine the effectiveness of reviews in terms of phase containment

- to improve phase containment effectiveness

Which of the following answers would you expect to describe the best way to achieve these objectives?

Number of correct responses: 1

K43 credits

Options:

A.

You should plan for lightweight exit-phase reviews at the end of each development and testing phase, and plan for a process of gathering information from testing to perform an analysis aimed at identifying the larger cluster of defects

B.

You should plan for formal exit-phase reviews at the end of each development and testing phase, and plan for a process of gathering information from testing to perform an analysis aimed at identifying the larger cluster of defects

C.

You should plan for formal exit-phase reviews at the end of each development phase and testing phase, and plan for a process of gathering information from testing to perform an analysis of the bugs found during testing to determine the people responsible for those bugs

D.

You should plan for formal exit-phase reviews at the end of each development and testing phase, and plan for a process of gathering information from testing to perform an analysis of the bugs found during testing to determine the phase in which they have been introduced

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Questions 13

During the follow-up phase the following conditions are checked:

X1. The code has been completely reviewed

X2. All the identified defects have been correctly fixed and the modified code has been compiled successfully and run through all the static analyzers used by the project without warnings and errors

X3. The modified code is available under the configuration management system with a new version number for the specified CI

If these conditions are fulfilled then the review process terminates.

Which of the following characteristics of a formal review is missing in this description?

Number of correct responses: 1

K21 credit

Options:

A.

Defined entry and exit criteria

B.

Checklists to be used by the reviewers

C.

Deliverables such as reports, evaluation sheets or other review summary sheets

D.

Metrics for reporting on the review effectiveness, efficiency, and progress

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Questions 14

Improving the Testing Process

Which of the following statements about the TMMi test process improvement model is true?

Number of correct responses: 1

K21 credit

Options:

A.

In TMMi all the process areas at lower levels must be 75% complete by achieving specific and generic goals in order to claim the higher level

B.

TMMi provides an approach for test process improvement such as the IDEAL (Initiating, Diagnosing, Establishing, Acting and Learning) model

C.

TMMi has a staged architecture for process improvement with seven maturity levels

D.

At TMMi level 1 testing is chaotic without a defined process, and it is often seen as the same as debugging

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Questions 15

Defect Management

Which of the following information would you expect to be the most useful to perform a defect clustering analysis?

Number of correct responses: 1

K21 credit

Options:

A.

The trend in the lag time from defect reporting to resolution

B.

The defect component information

C.

The lifecycle phase in which the defect has been introduced

D.

The defect removal efficiency information

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Questions 16

Defect Management

Assume you are working on a defect management process to be used by a software organization to track the current status of the defects reports for several projects.

When a defect is found for investigation a defect report is created in “Opened” state that is the unique initial state. The defect report status has also a unique finale state that is the “Closed” state.

The following state transition diagram describes the states of this defect management process:

where only the initial (“Opened”) and final (“Closed”) states are indicated while the remaining states (V, W, X, Y, Z) have yet to be named.

Which of the following assignments would you expect to best complete the defect management process?

Number of correct responses: 1

K32 credits

Options:

A.

V=Rejected , W=Corrected , X=Validated, Y=Re-Opened, Z=Assigned

B.

V=Assigned, W=Validated , X=Corrected, Y=Re-Opened, Z=Rejected

C.

V=Assigned, W=Corrected , X=Validated, Y=Re-Opened, Z=Rejected

D.

V= Corrected, W=Assigned, X=Validated, Y=Corrected, Z=Rejected

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Questions 17

Defect Management

During the system testing phase a tester from your test team observes a failure in the system under test and he/she decides to create an incident report. The incident report is currently in a “new” state, indicating it needs to be investigated.

Which THREE of the following information items can’t yet be present in the incident report?

Number of correct responses: 3

K32 credits (2 credits out of 3 credits correct, 1 credit point)

Options:

A.

The type of defect that caused the failure

B.

The actual and the expected result highlighting the failure

C.

The lifecycle phase in which the defect has been introduced

D.

What really caused the failure (actual cause)

E.

Steps to reproduce the failure, including screenshots, database dumps and logs where applicable

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Questions 18

Defect Management

Consider a defect report and assume that a part of its lifecycle includes the following states:

New: Is the initial state

Working: Means that the developers are addressing the defect in order to produce a fix for the defect

Clarification: Means that the developers need more information from the tester to address the defect and produce a fix for the defect and the tester is working to provide this information to the developers

Verification: Means that a fix for the defect has been produced and the tester is running the adequate tests to verify whether the fix solves the defect

Closed: is the final state

Which of the following answers represents an invalid sequence of states that can’t lead the bug report to the “Closed” state?

Number of correct responses: 1

K21 credit

Options:

A.

New, Working, Verification, Working, Clarification, Working, Verification, Closed

B.

New, Working, Clarification, Working, Verification, Closed

C.

New, Working, Verification, Working, Clarification, Working, Closed

D.

New, Working, Verification, Closed

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Questions 19

Your organization is considering using open-source tools. You have been told you need to be aware of the terms of the GNU general public license.

What is the basic concept of this license? [1]

Options:

A.

Anyone can use the software anytime for any reason.

B.

A small license fee must be paid to the supplier of the software.

C.

If you're going to distribute the software, you need to do so with the same terms as were applied when you received the

software.

D.

You are allowed to use the software internally, but it cannot be incorporated into any product for which you will receive a profit.

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Questions 20

Most managers in your company consider the efforts of your test team valuable, while others see comprehensive testing as an unnecessary cost overhead to the SDLC.

What action could the Test Manager take to quantify the value of testing to the organization? [3]

Options:

A.

Develop metrics that illustrate planned and actual testing hours.

B.

Review the Test Plan with the management team.

C.

Determine the cost of external failures.

D.

Demonstrate the role QA has in similar size organizations.

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Questions 21

People Skills – Team Composition

Which of the following would you expect to be most likely an example of a demotivating factor for testers?

Number of correct responses: 2

K21 credit

Options:

A.

The management asks the testers to be kept informed about the intensity, quality and results of testing

B.

The testers’ recommendations to improve the system or its testability are adopted by the development team

C.

The same regressions tests are manually executed by the same testers, for every product release, without regression test tools

D.

The testers are assessed on whether and how often they detect important and critical failures

E.

Test quality is measured by counting the number of customer/user reported problems.

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Questions 22

You are using this skills assessment spreadsheet in order to define a training development plan for your test team.

Your objective is to fill the skill gaps by having at least a team member rated as an expert for each skill identified for the “technical expertise” and “testing skills” sections, and with the ability to train the other team members.

Considering the budget constraints you can send only one person to a training course.

Based only on the given information, which of the following answers would you expect to be the best option to achieve your objective?

Number of correct responses: 1

K43 credits

Options:

A.

Send Robert to a performance testing training course

B.

Send Alex to a performance testing training course

C.

Send John to a performance testing training course

D.

Send Mark to a test automation training course

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Questions 23

People Skills – Team Composition

An agile development team decides to hire a tester who has always worked:

- in independent test teams, reporting the problems found in a defect tracking system

- in safety-critical projects, with a stronger focus on the quality of the product than on time and budget.

This agile team is focused on short-term goals to get the product released on time and within budget.

Which of the following answers would you expect to be most likely true in this scenario?

Number of correct responses: 1

K21 credit

Options:

A.

Agile teams like the presence of a tester in their teams and the tester will be able to adapt to the new context without any issue

B.

The developers will immediately follow the guidelines described by the tester

C.

The tester can continue to report the problems found in a defect tracking system and be more focused on the quality than on time and budget constraints

D.

The tester’s mission could be to verify adherence to requirements, instead of reporting formally the problems in a defect tracking system

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Questions 24

People Skills – Team Composition

Assume you are managing the system testing execution phase of a project.

The system test execution period for that project is scheduled for eighteen weeks and the release date is scheduled at the end of system testing.

During the sixth week of system test execution, at the staff meeting, the project manager informs you that the project deadlines are changed and the release date that is only three weeks ahead.

This new release will not allow the completion of the system tests. Suppose also that you have followed a risk-driven test approach for this project.

Which of the following statements represents the worst way to lead your test team in the next three weeks?

Number of correct responses: 1

K21 credit

Options:

A.

Neglect your management activities and work side-by-side with your test team executing tests

B.

Considering the executed tests, you should reduce the test coverage back on the risk analysis and adjust downward the priority of the associated risk items

C.

Convince all the people of your test team that each of them is an important and needed member, and that their contribution is fundamental to the success of the team

D.

Favor and encourage a proactive attitude where people ask for new tasks as soon as they finish their current tasks

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Questions 25

People Skills – Team Composition

Which of the following would you expect to be most likely an example of a motivating factor for testers?

Number of correct responses: 1

K21 credit

Options:

A.

The resources allocated for the testing activities are not sufficient and don’t allow the testers to contribute to the quality of the product

B.

The testers contribution to the quality of the software products developed from an organization is recognized with increased responsibilities

C.

The same regressions tests are executed manually by the same testers, for every product release, without any progression in content

D.

The testers are asked to perform, in parallel with their testing tasks, other tasks unrelated to their testing responsibilities

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Questions 26

Test Tools and Automation

Assume you are the Test Manager in charge of independent testing for avionics applications.

You are in charge of testing for a project to implement three different CSCI (Computer Software Configuration Item):

- a BOOT-X CSCI that must be certified at level B of the DO-178B standard

- a DIAG-X CSCI that must be certified at level C of the DO-178B standard

- a DRIV-X CSCI that must be certified at level A of the DO-178B standard

These are three different software modules written in C language to run on a specific hardware platform.

You have been asked to select a single code coverage tool to perform the mandatory code coverage measurements, in order to meet the structural coverage criteria prescribed by the DO-178B standard. This tool must be qualified as a verification tool under DO-178B.

Since there are significant budget constraints to purchase this tool, you are evaluating an open-source tool that is able to provide different types of code coverage. This tool meets perfectly your technical needs in terms of the programming language and the specific hardware platform (it supports also the specific C-compiler).

The source code of the tool is available.

Your team could easily customize the tool to meet the project needs. This tool is not qualified as a verification tool under the DO-178B.

Which of the following are the three main concerns related to that open-source tool selection?

Number of correct responses: 3

K43 credits (2 credits out of 3 credits correct, 1 credit point)

Options:

A.

Does the tool support all the types of code coverage required from the three levels A, B, C of the DO-178B standard?

B.

Does the tool have a good general usability?

C.

What are the costs to qualify the tool as a verification tool under the DO-178B?

D.

Is the installation procedure of the tool easy?

E.

Does the tool require a system with more than 4GB of RAM memory?

F.

Is the licensing scheme of the tool compatible with the confidentiality needs of the avionics company?

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Questions 27

Test Tools and Automation

In your organization the following tools of the same vendor are currently in use: a requirements management tool, a test management tool and a bug tracking tool.

You are the Test Manager.

You are currently evaluating a test automation tool of the same vendor (to complete the vendor's tool suite) against an interesting open-source test automation tool under the GNU GPL (General Public License).

There are no initial costs associated to that open-source tool.

Which of the following statements associated to the selection of the open-source tool is correct in this scenario?

Number of correct responses: 1

K21 credit

Options:

A.

The open-source tool can be modified but only if the community of developers of that tool gives you the formal permission to modify it

B.

There are no initial costs for the open-source tool but you should carefully consider the costs associated to the integration with the existing tools and also evaluate the recurring costs

C.

There are no initial costs for the open-source tool because open-source tools are usually low-quality, while vendor tools have always a better quality than the corresponding open-source tools

D.

The open-source tool can be modified but it can’t be distributed further in any way

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Questions 28

Test Tools and Automation

Assume you are a Test Manager involved in system testing of a CRM application for a Pay-TV company. Currently the application is able to support a proper number of users assuring the required responsiveness. Since the business is expected to grow, you have been asked to evaluate the ability of the application to grow to support more users while maintaining the same responsiveness.

Which of the following tools would you expect to be the most useful at performing this evaluation?

Number of correct responses: 1

K21 credit

Options:

A.

Coverage tools

B.

Test management tools

C.

Static analysis tools

D.

Performance tools

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Questions 29

Test Tools and Automation

Assume you are managing a test automation project for a mission-critical system.

Because vendor provided tools and open source solutions don't meet the needs of this project, you ask your test team to develop a custom automation framework.

Which of the following management issues associated to the development of this custom automation framework is least likely to manage?

Number of correct responses: 1

K21 credit

Options:

A.

Proper testing for the custom automation framework must be performed

B.

The custom automation framework will require an adequate documentation

C.

The changes to the custom automation framework should be communicated to all external users of this tool under the GNU license

D.

The custom automation framework will need proper maintenance

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Questions 30

Test Tools and Automation

After a selection process you have selected a test management tool that is going be introduced in your organization and used by your test team in a pilot project.

You have already identified the member of your test team who will be the administrator of the tool, since he/she has a significant experience with the administration of test management tools and so he/she is able to make effective and efficient up-front decisions about "how" the tool will be used. You have also developed a training plan for the other members of your test team.

In collaboration with the administrator of the tool you have also devised standard ways of managing, storing and maintaining the tool and its assets including backup/restore procedures.

You have also analyzed standard formats supported by the tool (CSV, XLS, XML, etc.) to export, import and archive all the information managed by the tool itself (requirements, test case specifications, test plans etc.) for compliance with the most important test management tools, in order to minimize the impacts of migrating this information to a new tool that could replace the existing one in the future.

Which of the following phases in the lifecycle of the new tool has NOT been adequately considered in this description?

Number of correct responses: 1

K21 credit

Options:

A.

Acquisition

B.

Support and maintenance

C.

Evolution

D.

Retirement

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Questions 31

The following is the unique “critical” quality risk item that has been identified:

CR-RSK-1. The GUI of the application might accept non-integer values for the input field designed to get the number of bottles from the user

Test analysis for system testing has just begun and the following test conditions have been identified:

TC-SEL-2. Test the selection of the package sizes

TC-SEL-4. Test wrong numbers of bottles for an order

TC-CR-RSK-1. Test the accepted values from the input field designed to get the number of bottles from the user

What is the MINIMUM number of test conditions that must be added to fulfill both the EXCR1 and EXCR2 exit criteria?

Number of correct responses: 1

K32 credits

Options:

A.

4

B.

3

C.

2

D.

1

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Questions 32

The following is the unique “critical” quality risk item that has been identified:

CR-RSK-1. The GUI of the application might accept non-integer values for the input field designed to get the number of bottles from the user

Test analysis for system testing has just begun and the following test conditions have been identified:

TC-SEL-2. Test the selection of the package sizes

TC-SEL-4. Test wrong numbers of bottles for an order

TC-CR-RSK-1. Test the accepted values from the input field designed to get the number of bottles from the user

Assume that you have used traceability to determine the logical test cases that cover all the requirements and the single risk item identified in that scenario.

Which of the following is a positive logical test that is complete and correct, and covers the REQ-SEL-4 requirement?

Number of correct responses: 1

K32 credits

Options:

A.

Select a 6-bottles package, then try to insert 5 bottles; verify that no error messages are displayed

B.

Select a 6-bottles package, then try to insert 7 bottles; verify that no error messages are displayed

C.

Select a 6-bottles package, then try to insert 7 bottles; verify that the "Invalid number of bottles" message is displayed

D.

Select a 6-bottles package, then try to insert 7 bottles

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Questions 33

Testing Process

The following are the exit criteria described in the test plan of a software product:

EX1. The test suite for the product must ensure that at least each quality risk item is covered by at least one test case (a quality risk item can be covered by more test cases).

EX2. All test cases in the test suite must be run during the execution phase.

EX3. Defects are classified into two categories: “C” (critical defect) and “NC” (non-critical defect). No known C defects shall exist in the product at the end of the test execution phase.

Which of the following information is useless when the specified exit criteria is evaluated?

Number of correct responses: 1

K21 credit

Options:

A.

A traceability matrix showing the relationships between the product risk items and the test cases

B.

A list of all the open defects with the associated classification information extracted from the defect tracking system

C.

A chart, showing the trend in the lag time from defect reporting to resolution, extracted from the defect tracking system

D.

The execution status of all the test cases extracted from the test management tool

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Questions 34

Testing Process

Which of the following is an example of the test closure activity indicated as "lessons learned"?

Number of correct responses: 1

K21 credit

Options:

A.

Archive all the test results of the acceptance testing phase

B.

Deliver a list of the open defects of a software product released into production to the service desk team

C.

Participate in a meeting at the end of a project aimed at better managing the events and problems of future projects

D.

Deliver an automated regression test suite, used during the system test phase of a software product released into production, to the team responsible for maintenance testing

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Questions 35

The following are the requirements identified as “critical”:

REQ-SEL-001. The user shall be able to combine all the three products with all the four durations to define an item to purchase

REQ-SEL-002. The user shall be able to add a maximum of six different items to the shopping cart

REQ-PUR-001. The user shall be able to purchase all the items in the shopping cart using a credit voucher

REQ-PUR-002. The user shall be able to purchase all the items in the shopping cart using the available credit already charged on the smartcard

REQ-PUR-003. The user shall be able to purchase all the items in the shopping cart using all the accepted credit cards (Visa, MasterCard and Great Wall Card)

REG-LOGO-001. The user shall be able to logout (by clicking the logout button) from both the “select” and “purchase” pages going back to the “browse” page (anonymous navigation)

Moreover the following quality risk item has been identified as “critical”:

QR-P1. The web customer portal might not be able to provide the expected response time (less than 10 sec) for the purchase transactions under a load of up-to 1000 concurrent users

Test analysis for system testing has just begun and the following test conditions have been identified:

TC-SEL-01. Test the combinations of products and durations to define an item to purchase

TC-SEL-02. Test the maximum number of items, which can be added to the shopping cart

TC-PUR-01. Test the purchase of an item

TC-PUR-02. Test the purchase of an item with the credit charged on the smartcard

Assume that you have used traceability to determine the logical test cases that cover all the requirements and the single risk item identified in that scenario.

Which of the following is a positive logical test that is complete, is correct, and covers the REG-LOGO-001 requirement?

Number of correct responses: 1

K32 credits

Options:

A.

On the purchase page (“purchase state”), click the logout button; verify that the browse page (“browse state”) is displayed

B.

On the select page (“select state”), click the logout button

C.

On the purchase page (“purchase state”), click the logout button; verify that the “Impossible to logout – complete or cancel the current transaction” message is displayed

D.

On the browse page (“browse state”), click the logout button

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Exam Code: CTAL-TM_Syll2012
Exam Name: ISTQB® Certified Tester Advanced Level - Test Manager [Syllabus 2012]
Last Update: Jun 16, 2024
Questions: 130
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